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Rigorous Science

Posts tagged astronomy

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Rigorous Science How can a Type II civilization influence accretion rates from a debris disk to a passing star?

A young B-type star (with a mass of about 10 M$_{\odot}$) is surrounded by a debris disk extending from about 2 AU to 1000 AU away. The disk has a mass of about 300 Earth masses - enough to form qu...

2 answers  ·  posted 7y ago by HDE 226868‭  ·  last activity 2d ago by James McLellan‭

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Rigorous Science An alternative way to rotate or in this case rolltate

As far as we know Earth and every other planet in the solar system rotate around their axes. Whether it be Uranus which rotates on its side or Mercury which rotates perfectly straight, all planets ...

5 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Nanoshadow‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Matthew‭

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Rigorous Science What stellar number density would two galaxies have to have for another star to collide with the Sun during a galactic merger?

The Milky Way and Andromeda will collide a few billion years in the future. Stellar collisions will be rare because - as Douglas Adams put it - "Space is big. Really, really big." In the galactic d...

3 answers  ·  posted 7y ago by HDE 226868‭  ·  edited 2y ago by HDE 226868‭

Question astronomy stars
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Rigorous Science Can velocity drift be used to calculate a radio wave source's distance from Earth?

If you're studying radio signals from Earth, is it possible to calculate whether a radio source is 'near' as in near Earth or 'very far away' as in somewhere far out in space from velocity, or velo...

4 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by zeno‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by HDE 226868‭

Question astronomy radio
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Rigorous Science How long will it be until the cosmic microwave background is undetectable?

I've had a number of interesting conversations with people about how the cosmic microwave background (CMB) will evolve in the future. The CMB is the sea of photons left over from the epoch of recom...

0 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by HDE 226868‭  ·  edited 2y ago by HDE 226868‭

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Rigorous Science What would the sky view be like of a final stage massive merged galaxy?

What will be the view of the sky and the distances between stars, living on a planet or in a habitat in a super galaxy that has merged with all its nearby galaxies in its cluster, at a time in the ...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by RandySavage‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by HDE 226868‭

Question astronomy galactic
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Rigorous Science Do seasons occur on a tidally-locked planet?

I have done some research and so much contradict one another or I simply fail to understand. Do seasons occur on a tidally locked planet that isn't tilted on its axis?

4 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Mister Onion‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by HDE 226868‭

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Rigorous Science What Factors Could Cause a World to See "Northern" Lights Much Closer to the Equator?

I'm currently designing a world where the inhabitants see the Aurora Borealis on an almost nightly basis almost all the way to the equator. The lights are so strong they rarely see the stars beyond...

4 answers  ·  posted 8y ago by Liath‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Canina‭

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Rigorous Science How can the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram be used in star building?

As you can probably guess from the title, I have some questions about the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, especially how to use it to make plausible stars. Some questions: Can stars exist in the bl...

3 answers  ·  posted 4y ago by Sam Coutteau‭  ·  edited 2y ago by HDE 226868‭

Question astronomy stars
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Rigorous Science How to Calculate Apparent Magnitude/Brightness of Planets from Within the same Solar System

I'd like to be able to determine the appearance of the night sky from an Earth-like planet, in a solar system with multiple other planets, moons, and other bodies. Here on Earth, we can directly me...

0 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by A.E. Stephenson‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by A.E. Stephenson‭

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Rigorous Science Is there a plausible way to have a Gas Giant with two or more earth to mars sized moons orbiting it in the Habitable zone?

A hypothetical scenario I'm batting around in my head is a Habitable Gas Giant system consisting of a roughly Saturn sized body orbiting a sun like star at a comfy goldilocks zone distance. Orbitin...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Khwarezm‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Khwarezm‭

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Rigorous Science I can't seem to find correct starbuilding equations that work together anywhere and am generally confused. Which ones do you use?

So far I've been using Artifexian's How To Build A Star YouTube video. The problem with this video is that it's quite old and thus outdated. The things I've noticed to be particularly weird are the...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by LonelyCryptid‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by LonelyCryptid‭

Question astronomy stars
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Rigorous Science Roughly how long could an 'Oumuamua type object get?

Roughly how long could an 'Oumuamua type object get if created naturally or if created artificially using fused rock? What would be the limiting factor governing the length of such objects? Oumaum...

2 answers  ·  posted 2y ago by Slarty‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Slarty‭

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Rigorous Science What, visually, would a hole bored in the moon look like?

If you took a giant drill (~one hundred meter circumference) and bored down two kilometers into the moon, what would it look like (assuming the lighting was good)? Is there a gradient, or is it a u...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Joe Bernstein‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Joe Bernstein‭

Question space astronomy
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Rigorous Science All planets and stars flat, how to bring day and night effect?

In a scenario in which all heavenly bodies are flat including earth. How to bring the effect of day and night effect like now i.e when day in japan and night in USA . Considering nobody can live b...

1 answer  ·  posted 2y ago by Amruth A‭  ·  last activity 2y ago by Amruth A‭

Question astronomy
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Rigorous Science What biological trait could make (certain members of) an insectoid species good at astronomy?

This is a science fiction intelligent alien biology question. I'm imagining a race of large (around 2m in height) insect-like species on a distant planet who discovered astronomy VERY late in thei...

12 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Iroh‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Iroh‭

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Rigorous Science What would happen to a gas giant during a supernova?

Fairly straightforward question. Imagine a gas giant planet, like the size of Jupiter, in orbit around a massive star. The star goes supernova. What happens to the planet? Is the energy of the su...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Geroditus‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Geroditus‭

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Rigorous Science How to calculate the solar day from sidereal day and sidereal orbital period?

I know the orbital period of my planet and the rotational period of my planet. Now how do I calculate the solar day? It would only be a small difference to be sure, but do remember that if we didn'...

1 answer  ·  posted 5y ago by GregroxMun‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by GregroxMun‭

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Rigorous Science Could life evolve in the degenerate era of the universe?

Our universe is incredibly young, relative to its total life span. How young? Well, it contains stars. Giant balls of readily fusing hydrogen and helium that give off a pleasant glow, suitable for ...

5 answers  ·  posted 6y ago by ckersch‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by ckersch‭

Question astronomy evolution
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Rigorous Science Is it possible to introduce life to a planet via preserved organism?

The dominant religion on my world (created by a race of dragon-like humanoids) believes that their species originates from an ancient being that sacrificed itself to defeat a great evil at the cen...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by Vigilant‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Vigilant‭

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Rigorous Science What does a gas giant close to a red dwarf look like?

In my setting, there's a gas giant orbiting in the habitable zone of a red dwarf (for specificity, its radius is about half Jupiter's, and it's 0.35 AU from 61 Cygni B. Ignore the effect of the oth...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by Gilad M‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Gilad M‭

Question astronomy planets
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Rigorous Science Constructing a doomsday machine by manipulating the Higgs Field?

I've been working on a sci-fi series set about 1000 years in our future. The discovery of an alien threat leads the ruling government to conceive of a doomsday machine, which they hope will be so p...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Geroditus‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Geroditus‭

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Rigorous Science What would happen if all stars disappeared?

I'm imagining a hypothetical scenario based on the Big Rip theory of the end of the universe (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_Rip), where eventually the expansion of the universe causes everythin...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Rick D‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Rick D‭

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Rigorous Science What did the night sky look like 63 million years ago?

I'm working on a comic which is essentially alternate-history fiction, and a big upcoming part of it involves the formation of the Chicxulub crater 63 million years ago. As I am a stickler for acc...

3 answers  ·  posted 7y ago by fluffy‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by fluffy‭

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Rigorous Science A supermassive black hole is coming our way. When's the latest that we would notice?

I'm trying to build a story around a supermassive black hole, which is ejected from a merger of two galaxies, that is hurtling our own way. What is the smallest realistic distance at which the blac...

3 answers  ·  posted 4y ago by bantu‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by bantu‭

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Rigorous Science In a world without stars, how would travelers navigate at night?

On Earth, sailors would navigate the oceans at night by using the stars as guides; since there are no landmarks in the ocean like there are on land (save for the occasional island), that's pretty m...

14 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Alexader Ferguson‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Alexader Ferguson‭

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Rigorous Science Is it safe to orbit HDE 226868?

I'm considering a story where an exploration is devised to explore a binary system containing a black hole; the choice is Cygnus X-1, with its companion supergiant star HDE 226868. It would likely ...

5 answers  ·  posted 6y ago by HDE 226868‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by HDE 226868‭

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Rigorous Science Ideal sun type and corresponding effects for a terrestrial planet with 256 days in a year?

The planet has 256 days in a year, split up into eight months, each with 32 days. My planet is a bit smaller than Earth: Think, enough space for the continents of Earth's western hemisphere and th...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by P. M. B.‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by P. M. B.‭

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Rigorous Science Determining this Planet's periods?

So, I'm trying to figure out a world's cycle (length of a year, day, etc.). The planet, Vixeruka, is about 3 times larger than Earth is, making it a super-Earth, and it's the second planet from it...

2 answers  ·  posted 5y ago by SCPilot‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by SCPilot‭

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Rigorous Science Under which circumstances could a planet have two visible suns?

In the story I'm making, it is important that there are two suns in the sky, going at different rythms (maybe the planet orbits one of them each year, and the other each four years, for instance), ...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by Iván Flores Vázquez‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Iván Flores Vázquez‭

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Rigorous Science How might an exoplanet have a highly radioactive atmosphere?

The exoplanet in question is Proxima Centauri b. How might the mid-to-upper-level atmosphere of that planet be dangerously radioactive and full of airborne nuclear reagents, without it being the do...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by ZarHakkar‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by ZarHakkar‭

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Rigorous Science Is there any conceivable way to "turn off" a star?

In my world, a group of "lamplighters" seek to turn off unused stars to conserve the energy for later use. This serves a few purposes, but mainly: It delays the heat-death of the Universe to some...

17 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Nathaniel Pisarski‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Nathaniel Pisarski‭

Question astronomy stars
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Rigorous Science Binary World Mechanics

I'm trying to develop a realistic system with a limited understanding of astrodynamics. Is it possible to have two binary worlds capable of sustaining atmosphere and complex life orbiting one anot...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Darius Arcturus‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Darius Arcturus‭

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Rigorous Science What determines the length of a day on a planet?

The length of a day on different planets in the solar system varies a lot. For instance, Mars' day is about the same length as Earth, while a day on Venus is equivalent to 243 Earth days (source). ...

3 answers  ·  posted 8y ago by JessWelch‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by JessWelch‭

Question astronomy planets
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Rigorous Science How well would a planet in orbit of a star above the Galactic bulge see?

I am making a story of a species who lives on a planet several light-years above the Galactic Bulge. With advanced technology, how much could they see from their vantage point? Could they carry out...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Greenie E. - Reinstate Monica‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Greenie E. - Reinstate Monica‭

Question astronomy light
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Rigorous Science Is a "Partial" Black-Hole Possible?

Black holes are created by the gravitational collapse of massive stars. But in theory, black holes can also be created by any mass at all that is confined within a small enough volume of space, de...

4 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by overlord - Reinstate Monica‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by overlord - Reinstate Monica‭

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Rigorous Science Can two moons orbit each other while orbiting a much larger planet?

Trying to work out mechanics and visuals from one of two moons orbiting a gas giant. My idea is that the moons are tidally locked so they can never see each other's backsides, but this might be ach...

4 answers  ·  posted 5y ago by CatParty88‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by CatParty88‭

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Rigorous Science Locating rogue planet in deep space based on astronomical observations from its surface?

Assume that you have a Rogue Planet hurtling through deep space. Somehow, an alien civilization from, say, 1,000 ly away acquires astronomical data from this planet. This data is in the form of h...

6 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by ak7‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by ak7‭

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Rigorous Science What's the largest igneous province an impact event could create on Earth?

With the potential for an impact event to trigger volcanic activity on the opposite side of the planet, what is the largest plateau of flood basalt physically capable of forming on Earth, post-impa...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Wax‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Wax‭

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Rigorous Science Is it possible for a large planetary body to embed itself onto the Earth?

With the proper composition and mass, is it possible for a planetary body to collide with Earth and embed itself onto the mantle? To clarify, while immense destruction would undoubtedly occur to t...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Wax‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Wax‭

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Rigorous Science If humans evolved on Mars instead of Earth, how quickly would we have detected life on Earth?

Suppose that both Earth and Mars was booming with life in a similar way. Except that, on Earth, there was no hominid family, and no humans evolved. Instead, humans evolved on Mars. Assuming we ha...

2 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by Bridgeburners‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Bridgeburners‭

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Rigorous Science Is it possible for an impact event to render the Earth's surface unrecognizable while still forming a large complex crater?

Is it physically possible for a complex crater to form and remain stable after an impact event large enough to deform the Earth's crust globally, insofar that the surface of the planet becomes unre...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by Wax‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Wax‭

Question astronomy geology
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Rigorous Science What does and doesn't work with this planetary system around a red dwarf?

So I have the following scenario for a story, and I want to know if it runs into any ridiculous no-nos from a scientific point of view: There is an earth-like world orbiting a red dwarf (similar t...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by LeftLiner‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by LeftLiner‭

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Rigorous Science How Likely is a Planet Made Almost Entirely of Metals?

For this question, the word 'metals' does not refer to elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. It instead refers to metals as defined by the periodic table of elements. After researching the ab...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by overlord - Reinstate Monica‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by overlord - Reinstate Monica‭

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Rigorous Science Do stars in a binary star system fall along the ecliptic?

I am wondering about Tatooine, and was reading about binary systems here, which provided a lot of good basic food for thought. My specific question is not addressed at that link, and so I pose it h...

2 answers  ·  posted 5y ago by DPT‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by DPT‭

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Rigorous Science How could a planet have one hemisphere way warmer than the other without the planet being tidally locked?

I would like a planet that's a tropical paradise on one side but covered in ice and glaciers on the opposite side, whether it be the Southern-Northern or the Western-Eastern hemisphere. I know it...

17 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by 1995inHUN‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by 1995inHUN‭

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Rigorous Science Can planetary bodies have a second axis of rotation?

Is it possible for a planetary body to have a secondary axis of rotation? For example let's say there's an Earth-like body that is spinning with its North Pole facing the Sun. Imagine that the Nort...

3 answers  ·  posted 3y ago by overlord - Reinstate Monica‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by overlord - Reinstate Monica‭

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Rigorous Science How long will it take to discover they live on a moon and not on a planet?

In my alternate reality, Earth is not a planet. It is a moon and orbits a gas giant (however it has all of Earth's characteristics, it is also full of humans and life as we know it). This is the on...

11 answers  ·  posted 4y ago by Carlos Zamora‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Carlos Zamora‭

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Rigorous Science Stabilizing Synchronized Orbit

The planet in my story, Ser, is actually in reality a moon orbiting a larger body called planet Rea. Ser is located in the L1 Lagrangian point, which means it takes the same amount of time to orbit...

1 answer  ·  posted 3y ago by overlord - Reinstate Monica‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by overlord - Reinstate Monica‭

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Rigorous Science What would a pair of Death Stars do to Earth?

Y'all should know by now that I want to build a Death Star ;-) Let's assume that we did that already -- and against the odds, we've built two of them, and they're currently in orbit around a plane...

1 answer  ·  posted 8y ago by Shokhet‭  ·  last activity 3y ago by Shokhet‭